distinction between the notions of citizens and non-citizens, the situation of refugees and immigrants in foreign countries and in European Law, gender issues and their implications to immigration, the state of affairs of migrants. Integration, more specifically the right to long-term residence for migrants, is also the subject of Daniel Thym's essay. Ruth Rubio-Marnreturns to discuss the present situation of the integration of immigrants in Europe. Currently, in an attempt to tackle the issue, international human rights law is being modified and revised. As Churgin says, Canada at present is no different from other Western nations that refuse entrance to many individuals seeking asylum and refugee status (277). Unlike the optimistic tone of the previous essay, Tullio Scovazzi's essay points a finger at the hardships faced by migrants who try to cross borders at sea. As he argues, human rights law " is the primary source of refugee protection, while the Geneva Convention is bound to play a complementary and secondary role" (22). It is precisely because of this "constructed vulnerability" (p 146) that states are able to enforce their laws and interventions.
Both countries have their immigration policies, and are, as Churgin states, able to "pick and choose among the refugees from various locations overseas" (261). Ruth Rubio-Marn, who is also the editor of the anthology, begins the discussion in the introduction by exploring the distinction between the notions of citizen and non-citizen, and the challenge and consequent impediment that this distinction might pose to the full practice of human rights. Following a provocative approach, Mullally asserts that the vulnerability attributed to migrant women is, in fact, frequently created by the law. However, in spite of the alleged threats to national security, there is a pressing need to concede core human rights to undocumented migrants (13). In the end, these dichotomies result in further impediments to the revision and improvement of human rights norms and projects of law.