of citizens. In their new lives as renunciants, they are devoted to spiritual concerns, yet each is affiliated with an ascetic order or subsect demanding strict adherence to rules of dress, itinerancy, diet, worship, and ritual pollution. Over the past few centuries, many Dalits have also converted to Christianity and have often by this means raised their socioeconomic status. A similar incident occurred in 1994, when a Dalit musician who had secretly married a woman of the Kurmi cultivating caste was beaten to death by outraged Kurmis, possibly instigated by the young woman's family. Further, at pilgrimage sites, different orders take precedence in accordance with an accepted hierarchy. Activities such as farming or trading can be carried out by anyone, but usually only members of the appropriate castes act as priests, barbers, potters, weavers, and other skilled artisans, whose occupational skills are handed down in families from one generation to another. 10 1588 queen elizabeth speech essay Similar ideas have since been taken up in community psychiatry and family therapy.
For example, since the late 1960s, some of the middle-ranking cultivating castes of northern India have increasingly cooperated in the political arena in order to advance their common agrarian and market-oriented interests. The mid-range of figures presented in a 1992 survey article by analyst Suman Dubey is approximately 150 to 175 million-some 20 percent of the population-although other observers suggest alternative figures. The word caste derives from the Portuguese casta, meaning breed, race, or kind. Am J Public Health. Further, the economic interdependence of the system has weakened since the 1960s. Voters from every stratum of society have formed interest groups, overlapping and crosscutting castes, creating an evolving new style of integrating Indian society. In the quest for great spiritual attainment, the aghori lives alone, like Lord Shiva, at essay on creation of smaller states cremation grounds, supping from a human skull bowl. Improved access to education has resulted in the emergence of a substantial group of educated Dalits able to take up white-collar occupations and fight for their rights. Hijras are males who have become "neither man nor woman transsexual transvestites who are usually castrated and are attributed with certain ritual powers of blessing. In violating the most basic taboos of the ordinary Hindu householder, the aghori sadhu graphically reminds himself and others of the correct rules of social behavior. Independent India has built on earlier British efforts to remedy problems suffered by Dalits by granting them some benefits of protective discrimination. Members of Dalit castes, such as Leatherworkers and Sweepers, may be seated far from the other diners-even out in an alley.