has even called third parties into existence, obligations arise on the part. The object of this Essay is to assert one very simple principle, as entitled to govern absolutely the dealings of society with the individual in the way of compulsion and control, whether the means used be physical force in the form of legal penalties,. This acknowledged master of all the eminent thinkers who have since lived whose fame, still growing after more than two thousand years, all but outweighs the whole remainder of the names which make his native city illustrious was put to death by his countrymen, after. The great chapter in human history which this fact occupies and fills, cannot be too earnestly studied and meditated. It can do truth no service to blink the fact, known to all who have the most ordinary acquaintance with literary history, that a large portion of the noblest and most valuable moral teaching has been the work, not only of men who did not. On the side of toleration it may be said, that the fact of following anything as an occupation, and living or profiting by the practice of it, cannot make that criminal which would otherwise be admissible; that the act should either be consistently permitted. The majority, being satisfied with the ways of mankind as they now are (for it is they who make them what they are cannot comprehend why those ways should not be good enough for everybody; and what is more, spontaneity forms no part of the. In politics, again, it is almost a commonplace, that a party of order or stability, and a party of progress or reform, are both necessary elements of a healthy state of political life; until the one or the other shall have so enlarged its mental. Any further restriction I do not conceive to be, in principle, justifiable. Were such a man to be assassinated, the balance of traceable consequences would be greatly in favour of the act. Judgment is given to men that they may use. People decide according to their personal preferences.
Let them send missionaries, if they please, to preach against it; and let them, by any fair means, (of which silencing the teachers is not one oppose the progress of similar doctrines among their own people. They are used to justify moral claims and to check the plausibility of moral theories. From this time may usually be dated the decline in the living power of the doctrine. Let us take care, it may be said, not to make the same mistake: but governments and nations have made mistakes in other things, which are not denied to be fit subjects for the exercise of authority: they have laid on bad taxes, made unjust. The Proof of Utilitarianism What Mill names the proof of utilitarianism belongs presumably to the most frequently attacked text passages in the history of philosophy.
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The only case in which the higher ground has been taken on principle and maintained with consistency, by any but an individual here and there, is that of religious belief: a case instructive in many ways, and not least so as forming a most striking. This goal explains the composition of the work. Under this regime, not only is the outside public ill-qualified, for want of practical experience, to criticize or check the mode of operation of the bureaucracy, but even if the accidents of despotic or the natural working of popular institutions occasionally raise to the summit. Under this assumption, the critics argue, there can be no evaluative basis for the distinction between higher and lower pleasures. If the First Formula expresses the ideal of practical reason, then one should expect that it requires maximization. Mill s political outlook is that, not only the rules of society, but also people themselves are capable of improvement. That it is not needful for common men to be able to expose all the misstatements or fallacies of an ingenious opponent.